Rosacea is a non-contagious, treatable condition often characterized by inflammation and reddening of the face that is most commonly seen on the skin. Rosacea can be categorized into four different types: Erythematotelangiectatic (ETR), Papulopustular, Phymatous, and Ocular. Each subtype contains its own group of symptoms that allows it to be distinguished from the rest.
Rosacea exists on a spectrum, with specific symptoms varying depending on the subtype. That’s why classifying Rosacea into 4 different categories allows for a better understanding and treatment of the condition.
Type 1 is the most common type of Rosacea and is categorized by erythema (skin redness), flushing, and telangiectasia (spider veins). All of these symptoms are caused by an increase in blood flow to the facial region.
Although these symptoms are usually harmless, they may affect self-esteem. Thankfully, type 1 rosacea is treatable with topical medications such as creams, gels, and lotions.
Type 2 Rosacea is distinguished by papules (red bumps), pustules (pus-filled spots), and reddening of the skin.
Type 2 rosacea is treatable with topical and oral medications. Although topical medication is usually used as a treatment, low doses of oral medication are sometimes taken simultaneously to increase the effectiveness of the topical treatment.
Type 3 Rosacea symptoms involve the thickening of the skin on the face. Gnathophyma, Rhinophyma, and Metophyma are the terms that describe the thickening of the skin on different parts of the face.
Thickening of the skin on the nose (Rhinophyma) is the most commonly seen symptom of Type 3 rosacea. Some treatments include the use of lasers, which are used to remove excess tissue. Oral medications, such as isotretinoin, can be used on their own or combined with other treatments.
Unlike all of the other types of rosacea, which affect the skin, ocular rosacea affects the eyes.
Ocular rosacea is usually treated with artificial tears, extra eyelid care, and some oral medications. Oral medications include tetracycline and ciclosporin in more extreme cases.